E-mail: secretary@petroleumcongress.com | USA : +1-646-828-7579, UK : +44-203-695-1242 | August 24-26, 2017, Barcelona, Spain  

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

Keynote Speaker

Dr. Elsayed Gamal Zaki
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt.
Title: A Green Polymerization in petroleum and industrial applications

Biography: Dr. E.G.ZAKI had my PhD from Mansoura University, Egypt, published several reasrch articles and two books in german publisher about surfactants as corrosion inhibitors. Reviewer in many journals and many conferences .invited speakers in many conferences .my research intrest includes, applied chemistry,surfactants,corrosion chemistry. Member in Royal Society of Chemistry( MRSC). Member in Society of Petroleum engineers ( SPE).Member in European Federation of Corrosion. Member in Egyptian Corrosion Society (ECS). Member in International Association of Advanced Materials . Member in The Arab Society of Material Science . Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological& Environmental Engineering Society (APCBEES). Member in The Egyptian Society of Polymer Science and Technology (ESPST). Member in The International Association of Engineers (IAENG).Member in The International Society for Environmental Information Sciences. Member of Chemical Consultants Network

Abstract: This study show several of the principles of green chemistry. The starting material is biodegradable,readily available, and theoretically renewable. The procedure requires no organic solvents. The poly(succinimide) intermediate is easily rid of any water-soluble moieties.. Sodium poly(aspartate) is an antiscaling agent, biodegradable and is made from an amino acid that is biodegradable, aqueous solutions of it that go down the drain can potentially leave the plumbingcleaner, readily available, and theoretically renewable. Sodium poly(aspartate) is an exampleof a step-growth polymer, a class that includes many of the synthetic polymers with which students will already be familiar. As a polymer of an amino acid, sodium poly(aspartate) is also an example of a polypeptide. However,it is not a protein because it lacks the folding and function characteristic of proteins. Thus, the example of this polymer serves as a useful bridge to connect the realms of synthetic polymers and natural biopolymers. and also used as green corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency has been studied using chemical (weight loss) and electrochemical (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization) techniques.


Keynote Speaker

Reza Rezaee
Curtin University, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Perth, Western Australia.
Title: A new approach for screening potential shale gas intervals

Biography: Professor Reza Rezaee of Curtin’s Department of Petroleum Engineering has a PhD degree in Reservoir Characterization. He has over 26 years’ experience in academia being responsible for both teaching and research. He has supervised over 70 M.Sc. and PhD students during his university career to date. He has published more than 130 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers and is the author of 4 books on petroleum geology, logging and log interpretation and gas shale reservoirs. His research has been mostly on integrated solutions for reservoir characterization, formation evaluation and petrophysics. As a founder of “Unconventional Gas Research Group” of Australia, he has established a unique and highly sophisticated research lab at the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Curtin University.

Abstract: There are many criteria that can be used to differentiate potentially productive shale reservoirs from barren shale intervals. Among these, organic richness, thermal maturity status, porosity, fluid saturation, thickness, and brittleness are the major criteria for shale gas ranking. During exploration phase having access to these types of information may not be possible or something expensive to obtain. Well-log data is another alternative that can be used for this purpose. This paper introduces a deterministic approach that can be used to differentiate shale gas from lean shale. The method is also applicable to calculate Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content and shale composition with some other additional core information.


Keynote Speaker

Hossein Jalalifar
Prof. in Rock Mechanics, Department of Petroleum Engineering , Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
Title: Investigating the effect of Nano particles on the reduction of mud filtrate invasion into shale formations

Biography: Prof. Jalalifar is working in mining and petroleum departments, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran as academic staff. He published more than 180 Journal and conference papers and published one rock mechanics’s Persian book and translated an English book in field of tunneling and also has written two English books’s chapters in field of rock bolting and wellbore stability. His research intrest includes, Rock Mechanics, Hydraulic Fracturing, Wellbore Stability, and Drilling.

Abstract: Shales are troublesome formation during drilling. More than 75 percent of drillings and more than 90 percent of problems are in shale formations that cost so much to handle the instability. One of the wellbore instability causesis ions and water movement into shale. Ions and water movement into shale causes the increment of pore pressure and reduces the strength of shale. Osmosis mechanism is a way to control the instability of shale. Adding the salts into the drilling fluid reduces the chemical potential of drilling fluid and results in flowing of water from formation towards the well and increase the shale strength. This mechanism is not so successful because adding salts create the ion concentration gradient that causes the flow of ions into shale and eliminates the osmosis mechanism effects. Another way of reducing the instability is plugging the Nano scale pore throats of shale using Nano particles. The permeability of shale using Nano particles will be reduced and ions and water cannot flow into shale. In this article the concept is the investigating the effect of Henna extract on the ions movement and Nano particles on the fluid invasion into shale using Gravimetric and Modified Gravimetric tests. The results show that using Henna extracts causes the reduction of ions into shale and Nano particles reduces the filtrate invasion into shale.


Keynote Speaker

G.P.Karmakar
TOTAL Chair Professor in Petroleum Engineering Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, INDIA.
Title: Flow Assurance in Oil and Gas Industries

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: Flow assurance provides the smooth flow of hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the refinery/petrochemical complex gate. In oil flow lines the major problems are faced due to wax deposition, asphaltenes precipitation, scaling, foaming and emulsification of crude oils. For gas flow lines, besides scaling, hydrate formation is another major issue which needs specific solutions based on the gas composition, and operating temperature and pressure. Each type of flow assurance technology has its own way of providing the solutions based on the hydrocarbon characteristics, applicable limits and economical implications. Most of the matured and all aging technologies have reached their limits of use and no further scopes of development are envisaged. The emerging technologies are in a process of solving complicated flow assurance problems with economically viable solutions. Presently a number of matured, developing and nascent technologies are available. The efficiency of such technologies depends on their ease of applications, success rates and economic viability. A good number of software technologies are available in the market to mitigate the specific challenges of such problems in gas/oil transportation systems. Offshore deep water flow lines require more robust engineering design to handle the challenges of wax deposition problems for oil transportation, and hydrate formation problems for gas flow. Traditional thermal and chemical methods have been used for a long time. Many new technologies like subsea separators to prevent hydrate prevention as well as slug prevention have been used to improve the recovery of gas/oil. Subsea coolers for corrosion and hydrate prevention, desanders for erosion control and preventing sand accumulation, and pigging for wax removal are now being used for flow assurance. This paper presents the review of the various technologies as mentioned above including laboratory and analytical methods that can be used to estimate both critical operating conditions for wax deposition rates along with a case study of some Indian oil field.


Petro chemistry & Chemical Applications

Session Introduction

Rachida Chemini
University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene, Algeria.
Title: Comparative study between adiabatic reactor and isotherm reactor Application for the synthesis of methanol

Biography: Dr Rachida Chemini is Associate Professor in Chemical Engineering at USTHB (University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene) from Algeria since 2012. He worked in Algerian Institute of Petroleum (IAP) and Sonatrach Company. Here field is modelling and process engineering. She has an expertise in the petroleum and gas industry. She earned her PhD degree in Chemical Engineering in 1992, from National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (INP) from France, and Master degree in Energy and Environmental Management and Economics (MEDEA) in 2000 from ENI Corporate University, Scuola Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy.

Abstract: The economic importance of methanol generated much attention to develop processes in general and technology of reactor in particular. There are many types of reactors, which can be used in the synthesis of methanol. The difference between them are the nature of catalyst used, as well as the evacuation mode of heat. The catalytic reactor can function according to two modes: - Adiabatic reactor with catalytic beds superposed with intermediate cooling by injection of emergency coolant (quench). - Isotherm reactor with fixed bed multitubular filled with catalysts and inert ceramic particles. The tubes are cooled externally by fluid coolant. The objective of this work is to compare the two technologies of reactors adiabatic and isotherm, in order to carry out the reaction of methanol synthesis. The adiabatic reactor of methanol synthesis is favorable at low pressures. The reaction takes place in the presence of solid catalyst CuO/ZnO/AlO3 and the rate is extremely dependent on temperature. The adiabatic reactor gives a conversion rate 14.8% carried out in the first catalytic bed, because the reaction rate of hydrogenation is maximum in agreement with the profile of temperature and ratio CO2/CO of the feed. It is interesting to work at temperatures higher or equal to 246°C because the production of methanol becomes appreciable. The isotherm reactor requires a number of 8892 tubes and a heat transfer surface 6841m2, in order to evacuate all the heat of the hydrogenation reaction, which is exothermic. The mole fraction of methanol at the exit of isotherm reactor is more significant than that of the adiabatic reactor, in agreement with the conversion rate obtained in these reactors. The conversion rate in the isotherm reactor reaches the value 27.19%. However, the isotherm reactor gives a more significant production of methanol and a higher catalyst lifetime.


Ms khatere sokhanvarian
Texas A&M University, USA.
Title: Slower Rate of Reaction of a New In-situ Generated HCl leads to a More Efficient Acid Treatments

Biography: will be update soon...

Abstract: In the aim to address the fast reaction rate and high corrosion rates of 15 wt% regular HCl acidizing system, a new in-situ generated HCl acid was developed. Therefore, the objectives of this work are to: (1) examine the reaction rate of the new in-situ generated HCl with calcite and dolomite formations and (2) compare the reaction rate of 15 wt% regular HCl with the new in-situ generated HCl. The rate of the reaction of 15 wt% HCl and the new in-situ generated HCl was measured using the rotating disk apparatus (RDA). Calcite and dolomite disks were used with the specifications of 1.5 in. diameter and 0.6 in. thickness. The effect of disk-rotational speed (200-1200 rev/min) and temperature (100-200℉) were investigated. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were measured in the effluent samples, which were used to calculate the rate of dissolution. Experimental results showed that the rate of dissolution at 100 and 150°F was controlled mainly by the rate of mass transfer of the acid to the surface. By increasing the temperature to 200℉, the overall rate of reaction for the in-situ generated HCl was mass transfer limited up to 600 RPM and surface limited above 600 RPM. Based on the dissolution rate results, the diffusion coefficient, the activation energy, andthe reaction rate constant at 100, 150, and 200°F were determined for the new developed in-situ generated HCl and were compared against 15 wt% regular HCl. This study will assist in developing a more cost-effective and efficient design of acid treatments through a slower reaction rate of the in-situ generated HCl. This new in-situ generated acid system reacts slower and more efficient compared to regular HCl with carbonate and oxide minerals in HP/HT carbonate and sandstone reservoirs.


Mahmoud Alhreez
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Title: Effect of Polymeric Inhibitor on Asphaltene Precipitation

Biography: will be update soon..

Abstract: Asphaltene precipitation plays a key role in many flow assurance problems such as fouling in production facilities, pipelines and refineries. Numerous attempts have been made to stabilize the asphaltene and prevent its precipitation by using chemicals such as surfactants or polymers. However, the contribution of using polymers has received little attention compared with surfactants and the mechanism by which they affect precipitation have yet to be understood. The principle objective of this project was to investigate the influence of a novel polymer on the stability of asphaltene. LUMiSizer is the most effective analytical technique that has been applied to study the effectiveness of polymer in keeping asphaltene particles dispersed into crude oils. This is methodology developed to study the precipitation kinetics and settling of asphaltenes around its n-heptane precipitation onset. The experimental data using LUMiSizer suggested that the asphaltene inhibitor makes the asphaltene particles more stable due to its unique ability to interact between asphaltene particles and asphaltene inhibitor molecules via π–π interactions and hydrogen bonding also we found the polymer delay the precipitation of asphaltene in the soulsion. The results of asphaltene analysis study by using Infrared spectroscopy support the view that the asphaltene consists of functional groups such as aromatic, aliphatic hydrocarbons, sulfoxide, and aliphatic primary amines functions. The elemental analysis of asphaltene has revealed that sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen constitute between 0% and 10% of asphaltene by weight, while the remaining part is predominantly composed of carbon and hydrogen.


Mathanaseran Theva Das
Petrodrone International Pvt. Ltd. Malaysia.
Title: Digital Transformation of Inspection in Assets

Biography:

Abstract: Inspection on static equipment like Flare Stacks, Vessels, Tanks, Risers and Pipelines is important to meet both Regulatory and Safety standards in the industry but also happens to be a fragmented and archaic process. We are pushing the boundaries on automating the physical process of inspection using customized Remote Operated Aerial Vehicles (ROAV) with specialized cameras to identify and rank anomalies found, using our propriety algorithm to propose remedial action with corresponding Due Dates. The approach is based on high resolution images andvideo feed captured on live production facilities. Our software then processes this data, identifying factors such as corrosion rate, defect growth rate, location, measurement of defects, criticality and proceeds to recommend Corrective actions as well as its Due Dates. External factors such as weather and Shutdown periods can also be entered to increase do-ability of these actions. The results are compared with the conventional approach to retrieve and process inspection data, and we found our technology yields results that are56% more complete and 19% more accurate. In a use caseinvolvingStorage tanks, 3D models were simulatedwith the exact geolocation and dimensions of anomalies. Our program running completely autonomously showed five “High” severity findings and their corresponding actions, of which four were ultimately the same recommendations from the Inspection Engineers on site after two weeks of reviewing and analysing the inspection data. Our results were obtained in a record-breaking 33 minutes. This significantly reduces the time to plan and execute the necessary Corrective actions. The novelty of this approach is it uses new data sources, otherwise unobtainable by humans to extract data in a live facility, processes this raw information into meaningful data and recommends way forward based on programmable engineering algorithms, all in a fraction of the time it used to take.


Health, Safety & Environment

Session Introduction

Dr. Bill Pomfret
Managing Consultant, Dr.Bill Pomfret & Associates Incorporating Safety Projects International Inc. Canada.
Title: Measuring Risk and Performance in Offshore Oil & Gas

Biography: Dr. Bill Pomfret has over 40 years of experience in safety health and loss prevention, he is both founder and president of Safety Projects International Inc. and safety executive with Enercom, educated in the UK, Bill has a Master’s Degree in Occupational Safety and Health, a Doctorate of Education, is a Registered Safety Professional and a Fellow of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (UK) Bill has conducted of OH&S audits in over40 countries using many of the better known health and safety management systems. Bill is a bestselling author, speaker and video producer, and has appeared on TV and Radio interviews on many occasions. Bill has received many honors for his safety work by the World Safety Organization where he was Exec Vice President for the Americas between 1975 and 1994, also by the National Safety Association of South Africa, also by the British Safety Council and the Indian Institute of Security and Safety Management where Bill was made an honorary life member. Bill has been involved in some of the world’s biggest disasters, including Bhopal, the EXXON Valdez, Ocean Ranger and the Kuala Lumpur Airport Fire.

Abstract: No other safety related activity could produce a status evaluation of any Oil & Gas Platform better than a comprehensive audit. Performed professionally, audits provide management with answers based on facts, which in turn, will generate appropriate solutions to identified problems. As safety professionals, it is our responsibility to ensure that we help managers ensure that their actions and activities within their mandate are based on facts. There are now many Health, Safety and Environmental Management System “models” available, OHSAS18001, CSA’s Z1000. The ILO, the ISRS and the 5 Star Health & Safety Management System™ to name a few. One thing is certain, that there is no “one size fits all” An Oil & Gas Health and Safety Management System, designed for An effective, quality driven OHS&E-MS is really measuring and verifying “conformance to requirements or standards”, without which, there can be no effective measurement or evaluation of performance. This document or presentation will address the elements and protocols for one “Model”, used extensively in the offshore oil & gas industry which will show that safety is a process and not a product, and that professionally done, a Health Safety & Environmental Management System audit can put any organization on a step-by-step program of progressive improvement


TRUST P. GBORIENEMI
FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, Nigeria.
Title: CRUDE OIL SPILLAGE AND IT EFFECT ON CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DEPOSIT ON THE SOIL OF IMMIRINGI COMMUNITY IN BAYELSA STATE.

Biography: My name is TRUST P. GBORIENEMI a native of peremabiri community in Southern Ijaw local Government Area in Bayelsa State of Nigeria. I was born on the 23 of June 1983 and am married with three kids. I did my secondary education at Senior Secondary School Peremabiri Community and studied petroleum engineering in Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island between 2005 and 2011. Currently I am a lecturer in the department of Petroleum Engineering Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State. I love reading and exploration of natural resources.

Abstract: The study looked into crude oil spillage and it effect on calcium and magnesium deposit on the soil in Immiringi community in Bayelsa State. Two research questions were used in the study. The researchers adopted experimental analysis in finding data related to the study. Analysis of soil samples were collected from polluted and controlled areas in Immiringi community of Bayelsa State. Data was collected from six oil spilled sites in Immiringi community of Bayelsa State. At each site, soils were collected at two locations from 0-15cm, 15-30cm, 30-45cm (A and B) using soil auger for each of the oil polluted sites and another two soil samples from unpolluted area from o-15cm each to give total samples of eight (8) samples in each site and a total of twenty-four (24) samples from the six site the unpolluted soils was collected at a geographically similar unpolluted site located sixty meters (60m) adjacent to the polluted site; using soil auger. The result indicates that the values of Ca and Mg were lower in oil affected soils than the adjacent non-oil affected soils. Finally, it was recommended that Multinationals operating in host communities should keep in check monitoring teams that will respond quickly to emergency oil spill in the communities to avoid wide spread of crude on land. There should also be in place immediate clean up and compensation program to sustain the fertility and preservation of micro –organisms in the soil. Proper security network should be created between the community and oil companies to avoid vanderlisation of crude oil pipelines to prevent oil spill.


WOYINTONYE F. IGBAGARA
FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, Nigeria.
Title: CRUDE OIL SPILLAGE AND IT EFFECT ON CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DEPOSIT ON THE SOIL OF IMMIRINGI COMMUNITY IN BAYELSA STATE.

Biography: Will be update soon...

Abstract: The study looked into crude oil spillage and it effect on calcium and magnesium deposit on the soil in Immiringi community in Bayelsa State. Two research questions were used in the study. The researchers adopted experimental analysis in finding data related to the study. Analysis of soil samples were collected from polluted and controlled areas in Immiringi community of Bayelsa State. Data was collected from six oil spilled sites in Immiringi community of Bayelsa State. At each site, soils were collected at two locations from 0-15cm, 15-30cm, 30-45cm (A and B) using soil auger for each of the oil polluted sites and another two soil samples from unpolluted area from o-15cm each to give total samples of eight (8) samples in each site and a total of twenty-four (24) samples from the six site the unpolluted soils was collected at a geographically similar unpolluted site located sixty meters (60m) adjacent to the polluted site; using soil auger. The result indicates that the values of Ca and Mg were lower in oil affected soils than the adjacent non-oil affected soils. Finally, it was recommended that Multinationals operating in host communities should keep in check monitoring teams that will respond quickly to emergency oil spill in the communities to avoid wide spread of crude on land. There should also be in place immediate clean up and compensation program to sustain the fertility and preservation of micro –organisms in the soil. Proper security network should be created between the community and oil companies to avoid vanderlisation of crude oil pipelines to prevent oil spill.


Rodolfo Salassa Boix
National University of Cordoba, Argentina.
Title: Current trends and challenges of taxation on petroleum around the World

Biography: The author received his LL.B. from the National University of Cordoba, Argentina (NUC) and his LL.M. on Commercial Law and LL.D. on Tax Law (PhD) from the Rovira i Virgili University, Spain (RVU). He is actually professor of Tax Law at the NUC; visiting professor at the RVU; visiting professor at the University of Oregon (Eugene), United States; researcher at the National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigations of Argentina and the Vice Minister of Science and Technology of the School of Law of the NUC. He is also the Principal Investigator of the research project "The Environmental Taxation in the Argentine legal system".

Abstract: During the last fifty years the pollution generated by human being has become one of the most important and urgent issue of the international agenda. This topic affects not only all States and the present generations, regardless of their location, economic development or pollutant contribution, but also the future generations. There are so many human activities that have contributed to reach the critical pollution point in which we are, and one of them the activity related with the oil, gas and petro chemistry industry. Concern over ecological deterioration has urged States to plan and adopt the most varied measures to halt this environmental degradation and try to minimize its consequences. Within the broad spectrum of possibilities, environmental tax measures have played an important role last recent years. In fact, during the past two decades, most OECD member states have carried out a deep process of green tax reforms. Pollution related with the oil, gas and petroleum industry is a complex reality to face in the legal field: on the one hand, the exploitation, exploration and transportation of them are necessary activities for the functioning of our current societies, which nowadays cannot be prohibited, and on the other, they are ultra dangerous activities that involve a probable risk of catastrophic large-scale damage that should be avoided. Currently, one legal solution for these seemingly irreconcilable extremes is the regulation of environmental taxes, for discouraging some pollutant activities, environmental tax benefits, for encouraging some green behaviors, and taxes whose collection could be partially or totally addressed to the consequences of these activities. By virtue of the provisions States are increasingly applying more environmental tax benefits and some kind of taxes on production (taxing barrels of brent) and consumption of oil (taxing sales to consumers), however the current tendency is rather to tax the effectively use of oil (vehicles miles traveled taxes) and to regulate an international tax on CO2 emissions by burning of fossil fuels. Considering that, there are so many challenges for governments, oil producers and oil consumers and taxpayers. Challenges for governments are to conclude an international agreement for resigning part of the sovereignty regarding tax powers in order to implement a global tax, to regulate the vehicles miles traveled taxes despite the enormous costs and taking care of the taxpayer right of privacy and to bear the pressure of the oil and petroleum industry. Challenges for producers are to reduce the tax burden that affects its business and take advantage of environmental tax benefits and to know how to adapt to an increasingly concerned World about oil pollution. Challenges for taxpayers are to take advantage of environmental tax benefits on clean energy consumption and to be prepared for a World with more expensive oil.


Khalifa Abdunaser
Libyan Petroleum Institute, Libya.
Title: SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF OIL PIT AND OIL-POLLUTED SURFACES FROM REMOTE SENSING DATA IN ONE OF THE LIBYAN OIL FIELDS

Biography: will be update soon..

Abstract: The area located in Sirt sedimentary basin at the north central portion of Libya is an important and unique environment which has valuable resources that should be carefully maintained. This area is threatened by numerous anthropogenic activities. The most important risk is that associated with the dangers of misuse and oil and gas pollutions from surrounded oil and gas fields. The study focused mainly on: (1) high resolution mapping of oil contaminated surfaces, (2) dating of oil pollution events using multi temporal satellite data. Validation of the contamination mapping results has been checked. Digital image processing techniques were applied to satellite-based sensing (optical and radar data) and have been utilized as a cost-effective way to gather information for pit water size, depth and polluted concentration assessments in pit-rich study area from different dates (1972 to 2006). The surficial coverage of the oil pit calculated from the 1972 MSS digital image data was only 1.8 km2, increased to 10.7 km2, during 2006 on TM digital image data. This increasing in the original total area was due to that water production quantities continue to increase as the oil and gas fields reach maturity.


Galina Kirillovna Vasilyeva
1Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS Russia
Title: Use of adsorbents for accelerated bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils

Biography: Dr. Galina Vasilyeva graduated Chemistry Department of Moscow State University nm. Lomonosov and received her PhD in 1983. She was postgraduate student at the UNL (Lincoln), Fulbright Scholar and visiting professor at the PSU (USA). Now, she is a leading scientist at the 1IPPBS RAS and docent at the 2PSINS. She has published >100 research articles. Her research interest includes bioremediation of chemically contaminated soils: petroleum and products, pesticides, chloroanilines, chlorophenols, TNT, PCBs, PAHs. She has developed an innovative technology for adsorptive bioremediation of contaminated soils where natural adsorbents improve bioremediation of degradable contaminants or strongly bound highly persistent contaminants.

Abstract: Despite on the evident privilege of petroleum-contaminated soil bioremediation, its possibilities are restricted due to toxicity and bad properties of highly contaminated soils leading to poor adaptation of indigenous or inoculated degrading microorganisms and plants. This presentation aimed to discuss conception of adsorptive bioremediation for those soils. Several long-year experiments were carried out in semi field conditions with various types of mineral soils spiked with crude oil, diesel fuel, and spent motor oil at concentrations from 50 to150 g kg-1. The soils were treated through regular in situ bioremediation. In addition to fertilizers, various commercial biopreparations were added separately or in combination with natural adsorbents: mineral (kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, diatomite), organic (peat, Spill-Sorb), and carbonic (activated carbon, biochar). It was indicated that their optimal doses (from 0.2 to 6% depending on adsorbent and form/rate of contamination) accelerated microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC). The positive effect is explained by the next mechanisms: 1) - reduction of soil toxicity to degrading microorganisms and plants due to mostly reversible adsorption of toxic contaminants (some PHC and especially their oxidized products); and 2) - reduction of soil hydrophobicity followed by improving water holding capacity and porosity of the soils. Besides some adsorbents, in particular carbonic ones reduce leaching of those toxic contaminants to ground waters. Finally, no significant accumulation of PAHs in the treated soils and plants were detected. Thus, the use of adsorbents may substantially extend the possibility of in situ bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils.


Manuel Torres
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), Venezuela.
Title: Safe Design Philosophy

Biography: Manuel Torres, Industrial Engineer and Safety, Health and Environment Specialist, he has been working PDVSA “The Venezuelan Oil Company” for 16 years, in the Safety, Health and Risk Engineering area. He has attended different processes since exploration, drilling, production until refining of petroleum. Currently he is a Manager of Risk Engineering of the Production Executive Management PDVSA "Orinoco Belt" as well as Member of the Risk Engineer National Team (ENIR).

Abstract: The search for adequate levels of safety in industrial installations is a maxim that should be pursued by all stakeholders in any project. There are many interests around an industrial activity, which can be maximized if policies or strategies based on the safety of the facilities are applied in order to minimize the probability of occurrence of accidents and the possible consequences, in case off these occur. In this context, great efforts have been performed to develop strategies, methods and techniques so complement the application of best design practices throughout the entire life cycle of the facility. Safe design philosophy of PDVSA, applies a predictive approach in the design and operation of industrial processes, equipment and facilities where all dangerous scenarios could be considered and the safety integrated into the same design. In this way, the goal is achieve the lowest level of risk at the lowest possible cost, through the application of the safe design philosophy considered as a strategy to eliminate hazards or minimize the occurrence and potential impact of unexpected events on people, environment, assets and operational continuity. This philosophy establishes as a good engineering practice the joint use of design and safety’s standards, design through safety layer and safety studies, to obtain facilities with the lowest possible risk level. The safe design philosophy has four basic elements to consider, namely: inherently safe (intrinsic safety) and added safety, layered design and risk analysis. Based on the criteria considered for the safe design, the safety layer designs are developed as shown in figure 2, as well as the safety studies, which allow evaluating the different risk control measures established in the different layers of protection. Depending on the life stage of an installation, specific safety studies must be carried out which allow identify hazards in the early stages, select intrinsically safe technologies, locate process units with the least involvement of third parties, verify needs for safety instrumented systems, fire system requirements and their location, installation cost effective of the fireproofing and emergency equipment, location and construction of facilities, establishment of safety zones as well as to determine zones of affectation for emergency response and control procedures. Risk assessment is one of the steps used in a risk management process which evaluate the different risk control measures corresponding to layers of protection. Lessons learned must be periodically reviewed , evaluated and incorporated into safe design philosophy standard, as part of continuous improvement in order to promoting sustainable development and strengthening of the oil and gas industry.


Davood
Master,SGPC Iran.
Title: Reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emitting in the distillation unit using the feed- product heat exchanger

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: It is generally accepted that greenhouse gas emissions leads to global warming. About 75% of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide come from the combustion of fossil fuels. The biggest refinery plant in Northern East of Iran is Khangiran sour gas refinery plant. This refinery have two distillation unit with one distillation tower in each units. This units are the same as each other and produce solvent cut, naphtha cut, kerosene cut and bottom diesel cut. The feed tray location is sixth tray with feed rate about 4.125 tons per hour and feed temperature about 40 °C . The diesel cut is sent to the storage tank with the temperature of 100 °C therefore a lot of energy were wasted. In order to reduce fuel consumption in furnace, a heat exchanger was installed to contact feed stream and diesel cut. This paper examined the effect of heat exchanger installation on furnace fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) generation. In this paper heat exchanger was simulated with several heat exchanger configuration. The results show that due to heat exchanger installation, furnace fuel consumption reduces about 116.21 SCM per day . Also, it was shown that the preheating strategy was suitable from environmental viewpoint and caused reduction of 75.822 metric ton of CO2 emission per year. Furthermore statistical results show that while a heat exchanger be used furnace performance becomes better.. Moreover, the results show that furnace efficiency increased, while an inlet temperature was increased.


Bahman Ramavandi
University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
Title: Urinary heavy metals levels of workers of gas and petrochemical companies, Asaluyeh, Iran

Biography: Bahman Ramavandi is an Associate Professor at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. I got my PhD in Environmental Health Engineering in 2011 at Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Now, I have about 50 published papers in international journal. Finally, I am an Editorial Board Member of the Data in Brief journal.

Abstract: Asaluyeh is one of the most heavily industrialised areas in the world, where gas, petrochemical, and many downstream industries are located. This study aims to survey the biomonitoring of metals in workers of gas and petrochemical companies in the Asaluyeh area. To do this, we analysed the adjusted creatinine urinary levels of manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni) in 165 workers in Asaluyeh, and compared them with a reference population. The comparisons were done for two seasons (spring and fall). The results, however, showed that in the case area (Asaluyeh), the levels of As, V, Mn, and Ni were significantly higher and that of Cd was insignificantly higher than the reference city for both seasons, but the backgrounds of urinary concentration of the five studied metals were low. Seasonal variations played a key role in determining urinary metal concentration, as we saw significant higher levels of As, Cd, V, and Ni in fall than in spring. Due to the values being lower than those reported in literature around the world, more research is needed on various population groups and other exposure sources in order to judge whether working in the gas and petrochemical industries in Asaluyeh is a threat to nearby residents.


Ebrahim Ghotbi
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman- Utrecht University, Iran.
Title:

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: Storage of hydrocarbons in unlined rock caverns (URCs) to have a safe and stable supply is a well-proven technique and has several advantages over above-ground storage. The main issue associated to this method is hydrocarbon seepage which can cause serious environmental and economic problems. This paper employs numerical modeling and standard regression coefficient (SRC) as a sensitivity analysis technique to investigate the effect of effective parameters on hydrocarbons seepage from URCs including hydro geological characteristic of the host rock and the physiochemical properties of the stored products to be able to control and limit the hydrocarbon seepage value by the most significant parameters. Key words: Hydrocarbon seepage, Unlined rock cavern (URC), Two phase mixture model, Sensitivity analysis, Standard regression coefficient (SRC)


Danaybel Aranguibel
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), Venezuela.
Title: The Risk Assessment Methodology in Operations MVR-PRO

Biography: Danaybel Aranguibel, Industrial Engineer, she is concluding a Magister in Maintenance Management. She has been working in PDVSA for 16 years in which she has attended different processes since exploration, production, and refining of Petroleum until shipping on shore and offshore operations in health, Safety and Risk Engineering area. She has an extensive HSE background in plant operation, commissioning, start up, major repairs, construction and project as well as in the implementing HSE Management System and Process Safety Management. Currently she works as Risk Engineer of the Production Executive Management PDVSA "Orinoco Belt".

Abstract: An important challenge in risk assessment in the oil and gas industry is the dynamics risk’s measure, there are few new methods around the world, but these haven’t been sufficiently proved. The Risk Engineer National Team (ENIR) of PDVSA is preparing and at the same time implementing the risk assessment methodology in operations called MVR-PRO “Metodología de Valoración de Riesgo en Operaciones”. MVR-PRO joint several methods like LOPA Analysis, Bow Tie risk map and the management of barriers principle. It starts defining the risk basal level considering a lost of primary contention (LOPC) capable to generate a process safety events kind of tier 1 performance indicator, according to API RP 754 “Process Safety Performance Indicators for the Refining and Petrochemical Industries”, 2016. The prevention and mitigation barriers are identified for each LOPC, from which is necessary to know their human elements, administration systems and material resources required to their functionality. The next step consists of defining the way to evaluate the barriers performance and measure their condition according to their effectiveness or degradation. The periodic verifying of barriers conditions in a certain operational context uses a specific algorithm, which allows estimating the risk and vulnerability level during their operation. The aforementioned, supplies the necessary input to obtain the operational risk level (NROP), which gives a major weigh to the residual risk level to prevent LOPC (V) than mitigate their consequences. NROP resulting is compared with the risk tolerance criteria established by the company. The results of this periodical measure are used as a useful tool in supporting critical decision making processes as well as a comparative indicator between similar unit or companies.


Rubert Hurtado
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), Venezuela.
Title: The Risk Assessment Methodology in Operations MVR-PRO

Biography: Rubert Hurtado, Industrial Engineer and Safety, Health and Environment Specialist, he has been working in PDVSA for 25 years. Currently he is a Corporate Manager of Risk Control and Emergency Response. He is the Risk Engineer National Team Coordinator (ENIR) and Member of the National Committee for Normalization in Safety and Occupational Health of PDVSA. He has experience in complete value chain of oil production and refining like safety and health consultant. He was part of the team who designed the Integrated Risk System of PDVSA (SIR-PDVSA).

Abstract: An important challenge in risk assessment in the oil and gas industry is the dynamics risk’s measure, there are few new methods around the world, but these haven’t been sufficiently proved. The Risk Engineer National Team (ENIR) of PDVSA is preparing and at the same time implementing the risk assessment methodology in operations called MVR-PRO “Metodología de Valoración de Riesgo en Operaciones”. MVR-PRO joint several methods like LOPA Analysis, Bow Tie risk map and the management of barriers principle. It starts defining the risk basal level considering a lost of primary contention (LOPC) capable to generate a process safety events kind of tier 1 performance indicator, according to API RP 754 “Process Safety Performance Indicators for the Refining and Petrochemical Industries”, 2016. The prevention and mitigation barriers are identified for each LOPC, from which is necessary to know their human elements, administration systems and material resources required to their functionality. The next step consists of defining the way to evaluate the barriers performance and measure their condition according to their effectiveness or degradation. The periodic verifying of barriers conditions in a certain operational context uses a specific algorithm, which allows estimating the risk and vulnerability level during their operation. The aforementioned, supplies the necessary input to obtain the operational risk level (NROP), which gives a major weigh to the residual risk level to prevent LOPC (V) than mitigate their consequences. NROP resulting is compared with the risk tolerance criteria established by the company. The results of this periodical measure are used as a useful tool in supporting critical decision making processes as well as a comparative indicator between similar unit or companies. The figures 1 and 2 show MVR-PRO in comparison with other dynamic technique.


Oil and Gas Technology

Session Introduction

Mohammad Ali Mohtadi Bonab
University of Bonab, Velayat Highway, Bonab, Iran.
Title: Investigation of different aspects of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) behavior in an API X70 pipeline steels

Biography: Dr.Mohtadi-Bonab is an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Bonab. He received his PhD from University of Saskatchewan, Canada. His research interest are failure and fracture analysis in various types of metals and materials. His current research focuses on hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in pipeline steels. HIC in pipeline steels is recognized as the most important mode of damage in sour environment, produces catastrophic and unexpected failure and is a tremendous threat to the safety of the oilfield production and even the security of the national energy. The main objectives of his current research are to find the HIC crack nucleation and propagation sites, evaluate a role of texture and grain boundary character distribution in crack growth and finally develop methods for evaluation of probability of crack nucleation and propagation in investigated pipeline steels.

Abstract: In this research, hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) behavior of an API X70 pipeline steel has been studied. In order to create HIC cracks, an electrochemical hydrogen charging experiment was carried out on X70 steel by using 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 3g/l ammonium thiocyanate for 8 hours. Moreover, SEM, EDS and EBSD techniques were used to characterize the as-received (AR) steel and investigate the different aspects of HIC phenomenon as well. The results showed that the inclusions and precipitates which play a key role in HIC phenomenon have been distributed randomly through the cross section of tested steel. However, the concentration of them was higher at the center of cross section than other areas.All HIC cracks initiated and propagated through the center of thickness where center segregation of elements has occurred. It is also observed that HIC cracks were initiated from several special types of inclusions and precipitates such as manganese sulfide and carbonitride precipitates. EBSD results showed HIC cracks can propagate not only parallel to the rolling direction but also with several degrees of deviation with regards to the rolling direction. Moreover, HIC cracks propagate through differently oriented grains where the local texture is random. Finally, it is concluded that high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs), orientation of grains and coincidence site lattice(CSL) boundaries are important in HIC crack propagation.


Hongqi Liu
Faculty of Southwest Petroleum University, China.
Title: State Key Lab of Oil and Gas Reservoir Exploration and Development, China

Biography: Will be update soon...

Abstract: For the development of so-called unconventional energy, shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, their electric properties are much different with that of conventional reservoir, such as sandstone-clay and carbonate profiles. Shale rock, because of its special structure, is always bounded by many water molecules, which form bounded water through Von de Waals, and further, with fine grains of shale, became double layer. This unique configrationhas some electric features, especially in shale gas reservoir. This paper proposed a new definition named ionic capacitor, composed of fine particles in shales and bounded water, or movable water and hydrocarbon in nano- or micro-throats. Thus, the ionic capacitors, some of them are bounded on the surface by the shale particles, some of them are moving in throats, pores or fractures. Take into account of the nanoscale of pores and throats, and in many occasions, the paths between them are not connected, so, the fluently and continuously electric conductive path does not exist. Instead of conductivity, dielectricity will take mainstream, that is dielectric dominate the electric characteristics in shale rocks. This paper stated in detailed that the mechanism of the formation of the micro-ionic capacitor and its electric properties through ideal models and experiments. Through an ideal model, this paper illustrate a basic style of ionic capacitor and explained its principles, and through cores experiment, this paper illustrate some special features, such as dispersion with frequency, extreme value in some occasion.


A. M. Dayal
Emeritus Scientist Council of Scientific &Industrial Research National Geophysical Research Institute, India.
Title: Potential of shale gas in Proterozoic Vindhyan Sediments

Biography: Will be update soon...

Abstract: The Proterozoic Vindhyan basin consists of more than 5000 m thick sedimentary sequence of sandstones, shales and limestones, which are characterized by the presence of rich fossil assemblage. Such Proterozoic rocks with rich organic matter are good sourceof hydrocarbons. Evaluation of organic matter in outcropping shaleformations fromthe Semri Group of Vindhyan basin has carried out using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Also light hydrocarbons like methane ethane, propane and butane, were investigated in the near surface soils to infer the generation of hydrocarbons in the Vindhyan basin. The organic matter in shales has the TOC content to a maximum of 1.43%. The thermally liberated free hydrocarbons (S1) values range between 0.01 - 0.09 mgHC/gRock, whereas the hydrocarbons from cracking of kerogen (S2) show the values between 0.01–0.14 mgHC/gRock. Based on the Tmax and the hydrogen index (HI), the organic matter contains Type III kerogen. In the Eastern part of Vindhyan basin, the concentration of CH4(C1), C2H6(C2), C3H8(C3), ¬and nC4H10, (nC4) desorbed from the soils vary from 0-186 ppb, 0 – 4 ppb, 0-5 ppb, 0 ppb and 0-1 ppb, respectively.The carbon isotope values for methane (13C1) vary between –45.7‰ and –25.2 ‰ (VPDB), and the ethane carbon isotopes vary between -35.3‰ and -20.19‰, suggesting a thermogenic source for these hydrocarbons. The near surface soils of the western or the Chambal Valley region of Vindhyan basin are characterized by CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4H10 and nC4 H10 ranging between 1 to 2547 ppb, 1 to558 ppb, 1 to181 ppb, 1 to 37 ppb and 1 to 32 ppb, respectively. The region around Baran-Jhalawar-Bhanpur-Garot is characterized by a high concentration of methane.The light gaseous hydrocarbon anomalies are coincident with the wrench faults (the Kota - Dholpur, the Ratlam - Shivpuri, Kannod - Damoh, Son Banspur - Rewa wrench) in the Vindhyan basin, which may provide conducive pathways for the migration of the hydrocarbons towards the near surface soils.


Leonidas Sakalauskas
Professor of Vilnius University, Lithuania
Title: OIL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION UNDER UNCERTAINTY

Biography: Will be update soon..

Abstract: The oil production optimization model is developed seeking for profit maximization. Costs related to gas lift and investment decisions are included in the model, making it more realistic. Decisions are made by varying gas lift flow rate, well routing and water/gas injection flow rate. The uncertainty related to demand and oil price as well as that with technological parameters of gas lift are also included in the mathematical model, by introducing stochastic programming approach. A stochastic formulation is highly relevant when maximizing profit, because market and technological parameters are uncertain, and, thus, are implemented as stochastic parameters to obtain a reliable model. The solution method consist of joint modification of Benders decomposition and Branch& Bound method (Branch & Price), which is able to guarantee global optimum. The resulting mixed integer nonlinear problem (MINLP) is implemented by means of GAMS solver CPLEX and user interface, which allows us to combine the simulation of data and the running of an optimization model into one program. Issues of practical implementation of the model in Brasilian corporation Petrobras are discussed.


Mr. Mahmoud Saad Eldin
Suez university, Egypt.
Title: Gas to liquid

Biography: Mr.Mahmoud Saad El-din is a fresh graduate from Faculty of petroleum and mining engineering Suez university where he has his bachelor degree in gas processing and oil refining . he did a lot of researchs in the oil and gas industry and he was the academic head at American Inistitute of Chemical Engneers AICHE Suez branch besides his internships in many oil companies wich widened his knowledge a lot in that field.

Abstract: Converting gas to liquids (GTL) through the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) route to monetize stranded gas has received increasing attention over the past few years. The first step in a GTL process is to convert the natural gas feed into synthesis gas or syngas. Before being fed to the syngas generation unit, the natural gas is typically processed to remove impurities such as sulfied, mercaptans and so on . The cleaned feed gas is then fed to a syngas generation unit. In this step, the bond between the carbon and hydrogen is broken, and two separate molecules (CO and H2) are formed. The ratio of H2 to CO in the syngas is a critical factor in the FT process. There are several ways to produce synthesis gas from natural gas and air or oxygen. These include steam reforming of feedstock in the presence of a catalyst, and the partial oxidation process in which air or oxygen is burned together with natural gas at high temperatures and pressure. No catalyst is used. The FT synthesis then section involves the conversion of synthesis gas to long-chain, heavy paraffinic liquid. The reaction is highly exothermic, with heat of reaction of approximately −39.4 kcal/gmol of CO. Large quantities of heat are generated in the process that must be removed. This energy is partially recovered by the production of steam. Generally, an iron-based or cobalt-based catalyst is used for FT synthesis. The FT product is totally free of the sulfur, nitrogen, metals, asphaltenes, and aromatics that are normally found in the petroleum products produced from crude oil. These products are processed further in the product-upgrading unit to primarily produce naphtha, kerosene, and diesel. There is a variety of specialty products that can be produced from FT products such as wax,solvents and lube oils . With only two commercial GTL plants built in the past 10 years, there is little information available on the capital cost of these facilities. However, it is widely believed that technology developments in syngas generation, FT reactor, and catalyst technology have resulted in significant reduction in capital costs of GTL plants in recent years. Mr.


Julia Krause
Department Technical Regulation, Germany.
Title: Technical Compliance during realization of oil- and gas projects (in Russia) (normative-regulatory requirements for EPCM-contractors)

Biography: Dr. Julia Krause owns the position of the Head of Technical Regulation with the internationally operating German engineering company Chemieanlagenbau Chemnitz GmbH (CAC). Before that Dr. Julia Krause was a Senior Consultant and Partner with ALPHA Consulting GmbH, based in Chemnitz /Germany, which provides a wide range of comprehensive support to engineering companies as well as manufacturers of equipment for petrochemical and oil- and gas industries in Russia/CIS, China and Iran. The theoretical knowledge is based upon her years-long teaching activities as a university lecturer at Chemnitz University of Technology. Ms Dr. Krause is highly and wide qualified: she holds a doctor degree in Economics from Chemnitz University of Technology, Chair of Public Law, Germany; an MBA in Production Management -combination of economic and industrial engineering studies. Furthermore, she is an Auditor for Quality Management Systems, TÜV Süd, Germany and attests a wide range of further qualifications in the fields of explosion protection, Engineering of most hazardous installations, Compliance Management, Health and Safety Executive, Technical Sales and Business Succession. She is a Nominated Expert for EU-Russia Industrialist Round Table, TF 8 in 3 Working Groups and the Author of the book “Regulation of Investment projects in Russia”, published by Springer (Germany,2016) and some articles in professional journals. Some guest-speeches at conferences, like International Chlorine Conference (Chemnitz/ Germany, 2015), Neftegazstandart - Oil- and Gasstandart (Gelendzhik/ Russia, 2016), Nationwide Congress on Compliance(Berlin/Germany, 2016), Chlorine and Chloride Products ( Moscow/Russia, 2017) outline her profile. Working within international projects with different parties makes her look at the process

Abstract: Modernization of the existing plants and building new ones is the key priority of the latest governmental economic strategies (e.g. Russia) as well as a logical target for every company worldwide. Most of such projects are done in cooperation with western (European) engineering companies, because of some reasons: the technology itself is often from western European companies and the equipment for petrochemical, oil- and gas plants is usually from those manufacturers. In spite of all the experience in executing such huge projects worldwide by lots of well-known engineering companies the differences in the regulatory approach cause lots of problems at different stages, which is the reason for all delays in project management and rise of costs on both sides. Technical Compliance is that term that can be used for this regulatory issue to build the bridge between modern engineering and regulatory requirements. Compliance itself is a very modern topic with a huge variety of different fields, which might belong to it and be part of it. Those regulatory requirements are of technical kind and very specific for this business, esp. if we talk about EPCM-Projects: engineering of the plant, constructing of technical products, their delivery from abroad to the specific point of destination with its laws, standards, regulation requirements, assembling and commissioning. But this issue starts far before the engineering process begins: licensing of the activities for international companies in those particular destinations, qualifying the staff for that particular job, conformity procedures for the equipment according to the Technical Reglements or other standards and orders, issued e.g. by supervision bodies and supporting during the commissioning of plants in form of acceptance tests done by accredited inspection company or calibration of instruments. The whole problem is to be targeted from 2 points of view: 1) to define each step in such complex investment projects and 2) to work out all the legal and regulatory requirements for each step. As the EPCM-projects are very complex issues, involving dozens of different parties (the client with its different departments, the supplier´s chain, the customs body and other government authorities and agencies, self-regulation bodies, testing laboratories, certification centers) it is very important to have an eye on the whole procedure and the whole interacting. The understanding of these specifics will help to make the projects really efficient (in terms of costs as well as time). This is what I would like to talk about at the conference to sensitize all groups: the future plant operators and the foreign engineering companies, as well as domestic design institutes and all the authorities - for the topic of Technical Compliance and Confirmation of all procedures with national regulatory requirements of the country-destination.


Alexandra Salazar Rodriguez
SPECIALIST DRILLING FLUID SLUDGE, LOVENCA, SLUDGE VENEZUELA.
Title: ANALYSIS OF GASES OBTAINED DURING PERFORATION OF WELLS BY CHROMATOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION.

Biography: Demonstrate my ability in the workplace, in order to contribute to the achievement of the objectives in the organization within any area and at the same time offer and / or innovative ideas that generate success of it.

Abstract: The compositional variation of fluids with depth is one of the problems that affects the estimation of the condensed Gas-Volatil and Volatile-crude black contacts of the Boqueron Field, increasing the uncertainty in the estimation of this fluid contacts. One of the key aspects within the corrective actions to this problem is the Chromatographic Analysis being a useful tool for the identification and determination of the different concentrations of compounds of the different crudes present in the mixture. This work presents an applied methodology to evaluate the gas chromatography obtained during well drilling, which starts with the identification of the wells that present the chromatographic data. Then we proceed to the application of the quality control methods with the objective of knowing the representativeness of the data. Finally we proceed to the application of the chromatographic analyzes using different methodologies such as the Gas Relations method, where Used a series of mathematical relationships such as the relation of wet gases, the light-heavy relation and the relation to the qualifier of the character of the petroleum, to the intervals of the chromatographic data and with the obtained results the type of fluid present in the well was interpreted . In addition, the Pixler graphical method was used, establishing different techniques, one of them being the methane / ethane ratio (C1 / C2) as a function of depth with the purpose of confirming the type of fluid present and determining possible contact areas between Fluids. This in order to minimize the uncertainty that exists between condensate-volatile and volatile-black crude contacts. Also to improve the production schemes of the wells and for greater efficiency in the determination of productive and non productive reservoirs.


Zhang Ziming
D&P Technology Research Institute of PetroChina LiaoHe Oilfield Company, China.
Title: Tracer Monitoring Technology of Multi-stage Hydraulic Fracturing

Biography: Zhang Ziming,Born in 1978,Master degree, major in Petroleum Engineering,China University of Geosciences(Beijing).Work at PetroChina. Mainly engaged in design and field service of hydraulic fracturing treatmen, published 21 technical papers.

Abstract: Multi-stage fracturing is an important way to realize volume fracturing treatments to tight oil and gas reservoirs. Due to the multi-stage fracturing of single wells and the physical property differences over the long horizontal interval, the clean-up after each stage is of great importance to the evaluation of the fracturing results and the deployment of wells in the next step. Currently, micro fracture monitoring technique is used to evaluate the fracturing performance in each stage and it can give a good picture of induced fracture morphology, but the clean-up and production situations after fracturing in each stage require other techniques to determine. The tracer monitoring technique introduced in the paper can analyze the fracturing results after each stage by injecting multi-kinds of tracers together with the fracturing fluids into the reservoirs, detecting the changes of tracer concentrations in the flowback fluids by continuous sampling and determining the flowback situations through the cumulated tracer volumes and the flowback volumes. With this method, the flowback situations of fracturing fluids can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively and the flowback data after each stage are also important for future production in determining the key producing layers. Application results show that each layer’s produced fluid volume has good matching relationship with well log and logging, section which oil and gas shows good is main production fluid layer.


Hisham Abdussalam Mahfud
Libyan Petroleum Institute, Libya
Title: External soil corrosion failure analysis of gas condensate steel Pipeline

Biography: Mr. Mahfud has more than 15 years work experience at Libyan Petroleum Insatiate (LPI), now is a Corrosion Engineering Lab Supervisor at (LPI), did his M.Sc from university of Manchester (formerly UMIST), UK 2004, B.Sc materials and metallurgy Eng. Dept. Faculty of Engineering at University of Tripoli. He has published scientific articles in international and national conference/Journals such TOG ly, Euro Corr, and NACE MP, ASM journals ( 6 MP & ASM journal articles, and 7 papers conf. ). His scientific areas of interest includes, oil and gas corrosion failure analysis, materials reliability, and fitness for service of metallic production systems from the down hole piping, well head, pipe lines, petrochemical metallic equipments ….etc. Beside, conduction lab studies has nature of applied research in the field of CO2 corrosion inhibition, Pitting of Stainless steel, and Microbial Corrosion using the conventional electrochemical technologies to serve oil and gas operation Libyan companies.

Abstract: A 16’’ gas condensate steel pipe line –had several leaks at least three times over period of 7 years in first half of designed pipeline life time. The failed parts were replaced by a new one. Although the internal pipe side was chemically well treated and proved to be protected against corrosion, corrosion failure (leaks) was taken place and repeated. In addition, the pipeline was coated with called PVT coating for soil ‘Subkha’ external corrosion and cathodically protected as a complementary protection to the coated surface. A thorough investigation was done at LPI laboratories to know the reason(s) of pipeline failure. A specialized failure analysis of the received failed parts supports that the root cause failure was due to coating desponding or coating defects which was associated with pinhole formation.


Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery

Session Introduction

Arije Al Khafaji
University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Title: Effect of High and Low Salinity Solutions on the Oil Desorption Efficiency from Calcite and Silica Surfaces

Biography: Arije did her B.Sc. and M.Sc in petroleum engineering from the university of Baghdad with more than nine years’ experience working in the Iraqi Ministry of Oil, Reservoirs and Fields Development Directorate, mainly as a reservoir engineer. She has extensive knowledge of reservoir engineering and she has been performed a full reservoir studies using reservoir simulation tools. Also She has been involved in projects of re-development studies of mature Iraqi fields, field development planning, secondary recovery by water flooding. Currently She is doing her PhD study in enhanced oil recovery at the university of Leeds.

Abstract: It is well established that low salinity water flooding has been suggested to improve oil recovery in sandstone reservoirs. However, it's application in carbonate reservoirs is still controversial, since for certain carbonate reservoirs no improvement was observed at all. In this comparative study, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) was used to investigate the impact of the chemical composition of crude oils and crystal surfaces on adsorption/desorption efficiency of oil components upon exposure to sea water and different diluted versions of seawater, in an attempt to examine exactly what governs the lack of oil recovery enhancement from carbonate reservoirs. The surface charges of carbonate rock were also characterized by zeta potential measurements. For QCM-D measurements Norwegian and North Sea crude oils with various acid number were used, while calcite and silica crystals were used to mimic carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the amount of adsorption was correlated to the concentration of polar organic components present in oil and the type of surface mineral. Subsequent desorption showed that small desorption was reported upon exposure to seawater for both surfaces examined, while two and ten times diluted seawater displayed the highest desorption efficiency. These observations are supported by our zeta potential measurements for carbonate rock and previous electrokinetics studies for silica surface, as the salinity of seawater decreased the electrokinetics repulsion force increased helping to detach more oil. Generally, increasing the content of negative polar components of crude oil lead to decrease the extent of desorption from calcite surface compared to the silica surface. Low salinity water flooding seems not to be an optimal technique to improve oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs with acidic and heavy crude oil.


Mahmoud Ali Abd El Fattah
Qarun Petroleum Company, Egypt.
Title: Infill Effect on Production in Western Desert Wells in Egypt

Biography: Bachelor degree of Petroleum Engineering.: Petroleum Engineering. 2010 Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering.Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering in Suez, Suez Canal University. Junior Petroleum Engineer Jul 2010 - Jul 2014 Qarun Petroleum Company, For producing and water injection wells: Review and approve the well operationsactivity; open hole and cased hole logs (programs and analysis), Rig and Riglessworkover programs, all CTU activities……etc. First Reservoir Engineer Jul 2014 - Jul 2015 Qarun Petroleum Company, Provided support to current drilling programme from production forecasts for economic justification through to technical/wellsite support during the testing phase and then incorporated the new data into an updated reservoir model. Analyzed production performance data and recommended activities in order to improve well performance and assisted in planning remedial well activity as required. Senior Petroleum Engineer Jul 2015 - Current Qarun Petroleum Company, Excellent interaction with Apachi expatriate engineers learning how to use and apply the latest technology for problem well evaluation and trouble-shooting. Represented the client at (operated and non-operated) technical meetings, reviews, etc to Government as required. Follow up the performance of wells, the required operational work (Hydraluic Fracuring/C.T/Testing /Perforation/Pump Replacement/, collecting samples,…….).

Abstract: The offshore oil field, situated offshore Egypt, has been operated by TOTAL for nearly 16 years. At the time of development it was estimated that recovery of the original oil in place would be recovered and that the field would be abandoned shortly. Since the early 2011, however, many new innovative technical solutions have been employed to improve recovery and maintain economic production; one such technology has been the progressively infill wells that have been successfully used to drain smaller and smaller pockets of residual oil. As a consequence, recovery today is high and with certain reservoir layers reaching a record recovery factors in carbonate reservoir. This figure represent the effect of infill wells in production in one of my company fields ( Samra field) by start drilling 19 infill wells and rearrange target and pattern of injection system resulting in improve oil recovery and increase run life for samra field. Initially the production from the reservoir was with vertical wells but then deviated wells began to be drilled from drilling Rigs. The pressure support was provided by peripheral water injectors. The deviated wells were useful in targeting remote areas of the reservoir but, since the layers were thin, the exposure to the reservoir was limited. Also, this resulted in the permeable layers being more developed than the tight layers due to the commingled production.


Omar Chaalal
Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates.
Title: Secondary and Tertiary Green Water Flooding Of Fractured and Heterogeneous Oil Reservoirs at High Salinity and High Temperature.

Biography: Omar Chaalal is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Abu Dhabi University (ADU). Chaalal is an internationally renowned expert in the separation technologies. He is the inventor of the EnPro Process that deals with the sequestration of carbon dioxide and global warming reduction. He has undertaken several successful research related to CO2 cleaning in Natural Gas and subsequently two patents applications have been filed for the use of this technology. The benefits of these patents were, in addition to the environmental benefits, used in the treatment of large quantities of desalinated formation water in the oil field. Chaalal has pioneered among others the use of seawater and ammonia to reduce the effect of carbon dioxide on the environment. Chaalal was an associate professor of Chemical Engineering at Ibn Khaldun University Algeria, as well as at the United Arab Emirates University. He was the Chief Scientist of Enpro As. Norway, a member of Al Mobdioon Center of Excellence and innovation of King Abdul Aziz University (Saudi Arabia), an Advisory Board of IIB environmental Company in Japan and a member of the board of the Journal of Nature Science and Sustainable Technology (Nova Science Publisher). He has authored 50 refereed publications, 2 European patents, 1 US patent pending and 200 presentations.

Abstract: Fulfilling worldwide energy demand in the 21st century is the most challenging problem. New kinds of energy sources along with the new technological breakthroughs to maintain enough oil and gas supply are needed to meet the tremendous rise in world’s energy demand. Recent dramatic fall in oil prices has accentuated the problem. Now, the challenge is to fill out the increasing gap between energy demand and supply with more cost effective techniques. Recently, Abu Dhabi University has filed a patent application ( US – Patent Application No 15/342,664 ) reporting the invention of Dr. Omar Chaalal that fulfills practically all criteria discussed above. In this paper, a ‘green’ alternative to chemical flooding is proposed. The new technology proposed uses two types of plant extracts that increases the total oil recovery to 96% of initial oil in place (IOIP) during the tertiary recovery mode. While water flood recovered around 50% of the IOIP, 0.5% wt of the natural plant extract recovered 77% in the secondary recovery mode. The additives were extracted from two plants available in the United Arab Emirates (Product A and Product B). These natural extracts proved to be very effective in formations containing water with a salinity range of 70,000 to 180,000 ppm with temperature going up to 100° C.


Baba El-YakubuJibril
AhmaduBello University, Nigeria.
Title: A novel application of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for EOR of heavy oil

Biography: will be update soon...

Abstract: Increasing demand and dwindling supply of crude oil have spurred efforts towards enhancing heavy oil recovery. Recently, applications of ionic liquids (ILs) for heavy oil recovery and catalytic upgrading have been reported. However, ILs are generally considered too expensive for industrial applications. Moreover, certain types of ILs are non-biodegradable and toxic. An alternative class of ILs are green solvents called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have recently been discovered and investigated upon. A DES generally composed of two or more components that are capable of self-association, to form eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are non-toxic, biodegradable, recyclable, non-flammable, environmentally friendly and cheap. Therefore, DESs have found application in fields like extraction/separation, solvent development/reaction medium, hydrometallurgy, etc. In this study, and for the first time to our knowledge, the effectiveness of two different types of DESs, Choline Chloride: Glycerol (1:2) and Choline Chloride:Urea (1:2), in enhancing heavy oil recovery was thoroughly investigated. Effect of the two DESs diluted with formation brine on emulsification, altering wettability, spontaneous imbibitions, surface and interfacial tensions and tertiary residual heavy oil saturation reduction are studied experimentally at different temperatures. Heavy oil with 16 °API and formation brine from one of the Omani heavy oil field were utilized. The core flood experiments were conducted at reservoir condition and using Berea sandstone core plugs. The results showed that the two DESs did not make emulsion with the heavy oil. They increased the IFT of oil-brine system. Moreover, the two DESs altered the wettability of the sandstone rock surfaces from liquid-wetting towards intermediately air-wetting conditions at oil-air-rock system. The core flooding runs at different temperatures showed high potential of using these DESs for enhancing heavy oil recovery; where 14–30% of water flooded, residual heavy oil was recovered after injecting the DES solvents as tertiary recovery stage.Wettability alteration phenomenon and viscose forces were known as the main mechanisms of enhancing the heavy oil recovery by DESs injection.


Rabia Mohamed Hunky
Missouri University of Science and Technology, Kuwait.
Title: Surfactant Improved Heavy Oil Recovery in Sandstone Reservoirs By Wettability Alteration

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: Wettability of carbonate reservoirs has been widely recognized an important parameter in oil recovery by flooding technology. Many surfactants have been studied for this application. However, the importance of wettability alteration in sandstone reservoirs by surfactant has been poorly studied. In this paper, our recent study of the relationship between rock surface wettability and cumulative oil recovery for sandstone cores is reported. In our research, it has been found there is a good agreement between the wettability and oil recovery. For nonionic surfactants, Tomadol® 25-12 and Tomadol® 45-13, they are very effective on wettability alteration of sandstone core surface from highly oil-wet condition to water-wet condition. By spontaneous imbibition test, Interfacial tension, and contact angle measurement these two surfactants exhibit the highest recovery of the synthetic oil made with Missouri heavy oil. Based on these experimental results, we can further conclude that the contact angle measurement and imbibition test can be used as rapid screening tools to identify better EOR surfactants to increase heavy oil recovery from sandstone reservoirs.


Ahmed Shehata
Texas A&M University, United states.
Title: The Role of Mineral Composition and Rock Quality in the Performance of Low-Salinity Waterflooding

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: Waterflooding has been used for decades as a secondary oil recovery mode to support oil reservoir pressure and drive oil into producing wells. Recently, the tuning of the salinity of the injected water in sandstone reservoirs has been used to enhance oil recovery at different injection modes. Several possible low-salinity waterflooding mechanisms in sandstone formations have been studied. Also, modified seawater was tested in chalk reservoirs as a tertiary recovery mode and consequently reduced the residual oil saturation. In carbonate formations, the effect of the ionic strength of the injected brine on oil recovery has remained questionable. The main objectives of this work are to examine the performance of low-salinity waterflooding using four sandstone reservoirs and one carbonate reservoir during secondary and tertiary recovery modes; investigate the role of clay content, rock permeability, and average pore-throat radius on the performance of low-salinity waterflooding; and evaluate the effects of mineral type, brine salinity, cation type, and pH on the zeta potential measurements. Zeta potential measurements were conducted for rock/brine interfaces to determine the suitable injection brine for the sandstone rocks. Then, a set of comprehensive coreflood tests were have been conducted using Bandera, Parker, Grey Berea, and Buff Berea outcrop sandstone cores. The coreflood experiments were conducted using 6 and 20 in. length and 1.5 in. diameter outcrop cores at 185°F. Oil recovery, pressure drop, and pH were observed and analyzed after each coreflood experiment. A sudden change in the salinity of the injected brine from seawater in the secondary recovery mode to deionized water in the tertiary mode or vice versa had a significant effect on the oil production performance. Changing the ions composition of the injected brine between the different slugs of secondary and tertiary recovery modes showed a measurable increase in the oil production. The total clay content is not the main factor influencing the low-salinity waterflooding performance. However, the clay type and composition seem to be playing a significant role.The average pore–throat radius (rock quality) has a higher effect in the performance of low-salinity waterflooding than high-salinity waterflooding on the secondary recovery mode. The incremental oil recovery for the low-salinity waterflooding increased from 4.3 to 17% when the average pore-throat radius (R35) of the core increased from 1.4 to 8.5 microns.As the permeability increased from 6 to 167 md, an additional oil recovery of up to 32.9% of OOIP was observed with low-salinity waterflooding as a secondary recovery mode, while an additional oil recovery up to 18% of OOIP was observed with high-salinity waterflooding as a secondary recovery mode.The measured zeta potential of kaolinite and montmorillonite particles in 5,000 ppm NaCl brine at 25°F and a pH of 7 were -26.5 and -29.4 mV, respectively. The zeta potential values indicated a stronger negative charge on muscovite and albite minerals of -33.8 and -31.5 mV, respectively. The zeta potential values indicated a less negative charge on the chlorite and illite particles than the other minerals. Results indicate that chlorite and illite have a smaller contribution to electrical-double layer expansion than kaolinite, feldspars, montmorillonite, and muscovite. On the other hand, the zeta potential values of calcite and dolomite particles are 1.0 and -4.5 mV, respectively. The effect of double layer expansion would decrease in the presence of dolomite and calcite minerals which affect on the performance of low-salinity waterflooding.


Bahador Najafiazar
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Title: A two phase simulation of gel injection with functionalized silica nanoparticles

Biography: Bahador Najafiazar is currently a PhD candidate at the Department of Geoscience and Petroleum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, where he also received his Master’s degree in Reservoir Engineering. Prior to that, he received a BSc at the Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran. Bahador is a board member at SPE Trondheim section.

Abstract: Sweep efficiency during oil recovery flooding operations can be enhanced using conformance improvement systems. One such conformance improvement treatment is achieved through gel injection. The treatment leads to blockage of paths that have excessive water flow, which can increase oil recovery and reduce unwanted water circulation in heterogeneous reservoirs. However, there is a need for developing more efficient water diversion techniques through in-depth placement of gelling chemicals. This study is part of the HyGreGel (Hybrid Green Gels) project, whose main objective is to develop a hybrid gel system based on conventional polymers and nanoparticles with functional groups as crosslinkers. The functional groups will either be initially be deactivated or will have delayed reactivity. By slow activation in the reservoir, it will be possible to delay the crosslinking and thus place the gel constituents deep into the reservoir before gelling prohibits further flow. This project also addresses the possibility to incorporate activated nanoparticles into polyelectrolyte complexes and thus delaying crosslinking is also addressed. In this study, a 1D-model for a two-phase flow system with polymers and nanoparticles dissolved in sea water has been developed. This model tracks the ages of injected nanoparticles, and provides a nanoparticle age distribution curve at each time and position. The age distribution curve and the polymer and nanoparticle concentration consequently determine the local value for water viscosity. Polymers and nanoparticles can absorb and possibly reabsorb in the model, and the formulation of polymer viscosity matches that of the fully mixed cases. In addition, inaccessible pore volume for polymers and nanoparticles are included in the modelling, along with shear thinning for water viscosity and reduced absolute permeability, which depend on absorbed polymer concentration. The input-structure to the simulator is general. The various input data are mainly based on tabulated data, and do not depend on specific functional formulations. This paper will present the mathematical and numerical formalism used for the simulator, as well as simulations of core flooding experiments with injected polymers and nanoparticles. In addition, possible generalizations and model improvements will be discussed.


Regina Hernández Gama
Biotechnology, Center for Research in Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Mexico.
Title: O/W emulsions formation usingThermoanaerobactermathraniicells as basis for a MEOR process

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: The efficiency of bacterial cellsto stabilize emulsions was assessed; o/w emulsions were prepared using cells from four different microbial cultures obtained from Mexican oil reservoirs. The effect of cells on emulsion stability was evaluated by rheological measurements. Cells were also tested to their effect on surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT), and finally a sand pack test was performed to determine the effect on oil recovery. The results showed that the addition of cells and the radius oil/water had a significant effect on the formation of oil/water emulsions, rheological tests showed that at low frequencies emulsions were more elastic and stable, with increasing frequency the emulsions have a mainly viscous component.The addition of cells to the emulsions achieved a decrease in the surface tension of 9.8 mNm-1in emulsions at 1% NaCl and of 4.8 mNm-1at 3% NaCl. Purified surfactant reduced ST of water 21.93 mNm-1 and IFT 4.78 mNm-1to oil-water. One of the bacterial cultures was selected by its rapid growth and identified as Thermoanaerobactermathranii. The use of culture of T. mathranii in sand pack column test increased the oil recovery in 1.3% OOIP suggesting a potential use in MEOR applications.


Onshore, Offshore Support

Session Introduction

Jose Gregorio Marquez Albornoz
Venezuela
Title: Dynamic simulation for an offshore gas pipeline integrated system

Biography: Will update soon..

Abstract: Offshore gas production requires a robust design of subsea facilities, as well as defining strategies to face the operational challenges associated to thermo-hydraulic behavior through pipeline systems that could mainly lead to problems related to hydrate formation, corrosion and liquid accumulation. These problems are more critical during transient operations, such as: start-up, shutdown, liquid accumulation, pigging, sweeping, cooldown, depressurization, among others. These operations could be studied developing a dynamic simulation model to predict and identify operational risks; after strategies and technological solutions could be defined under the flow assurance philosophy in order to minimize deferred production, optimize production processes or permit a safe transient operation. In this work is presented the results obtained from an integrated dynamic simulation model for an offshore gas field that consist of four wells, a gathering system and an export pipeline. The model was made using a dynamic commercial simulator. The fluid type is a dry gas saturated with water at reservoir conditions. This model was used to predict the systems behavior during start-up, liquid accumulation and pigging operation for the early production stage. It is important to mention that start-up considered ramp up of each well and its entry sequence until reached maximum flow rate of each one. The total gas flow rate is around 165 MMSCFD. Other important consideration is that the maximum liquid inventory inside export pipeline is restricted to 4,500 bbl due to the slug catcher capacity; therefore pigging must be made when this liquid amount will be reached. The simulation model was running for 98 days in order to analyze hydrate formation risks, liquid accumulation rate, hydraulic variables and pigging performance finding that: • The hydrate formation risks are very high during ramp up of wells until when a specific gas flow rate is reached. • The liquid accumulation rate for export pipeline was around 52 BPD, this imply that the maximum allowed liquid capacity is reached in 92 days. • The pig spot velocity is manageable in almost all pipeline sections using a maximum flow rate; however there are values below 0.42 ft/s that could cause risk of pig stuck or stalled in two specific sections of the export pipeline. Finally, it is important to highlight that this simulation model will be especially helpful to predict the behavior of new scenarios during the early production stage, however, it must be validated and tuned after production begins.


Petroleum Congress 2017 | by: Scientific Future Group